Mosaic working papers


  • Mikolaj Szoltysek and Bartosz Ogórek (2019) How many household formation systems were there in historic Europe? A view across 256 regions using partitioning clustering methods. Mosaic Working Paper WP2019-001. [Download]


  • Mikolaj Szoltysek, Radek Poniat, Siegfried Gruber (2017) Age heaping patterns in Mosaic data. Mosaic Working Paper WP2017-001. [Download]


  • Mikolaj Szoltysek, Radek Poniat, Siegfried Gruber (2016) The Patriarchy Index: a new measure of gender and generational inequalities in the past. Mosaic Working Paper WP2016-001. [Download]


  • Bogdan Mateescu (2013) Census like material preserved in the Romanian archives, for the former principalities of Moldavia, Wallachia and for Romania before 1914. Rostock, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2013-001. [Download]


  • Rolf Gehrmann (2012) German census-taking before 1871. Rostock, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-001. [Download]
  • Péter Öri and Levente Pakot (2012) Census and census-like material preserved in the archives of Hungary, Slovakia and Transylvania (Romania), 18-19th centuries. Rostock, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-002. [Download]
  • Piotr Guzowski (2012) An inventory of census micro-data from the territory of Western Ukraine (Red Ruthenia, Eastern Galicia) before 1914. Białystok, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-003. [Download]
  • Aleksandra Vuletić (2012) Censuses in 19th Century Serbia / Inventory of Preserved Microdata. Beograd, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-004. [Download]
  • Dalia Leinarte (2012) Census-like Material Preserved in the Archives of Lithuania, 19th century. Vilnius, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-005. [Download]
  • Sanne Muurling, Kees Mandemakers (2012) MOSAIC Census Inventory of the Netherlands / Final report. Amsterdam, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-006. [Download]
  • Peter Teibenbacher, Diether Kramer, Wolfgang Göderle (2012) An Inventory of Austrian Census Materials, 1857-1910 / Final Report. Graz, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-007. [Download]
  • Bogumil Szady, Piotr Rachwal, Grzegorz Bujak (2012) Census and census-like material preserved in the archives of Siedlce, Lublin and Sandomierz dioceses, 18-19th centuries. Lublin, Mosaic Working Paper WP-2012-009. [Download]


Other publications


  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Bartosz Ogórek, Radosław Poniat, Siegfried Gruber (2019) Making a Place for Space: A Demographic Spatial Perspective on Elderly Living Arrangements Among the Elderly in Historical Europe. In: European Journal of Population. []
  • Siegfried Gruber (2019) Рождаемость в Албании во время Первой мировой войны по материалам переписи 1918 г. In: Известия Уральского федерального университета, Серия 2, Vol. 21, No. 3 (190), 122-137. [DOI: 10.15826/izv2.2019.21.3.051]
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Bartosz Ogórek, Radosław Poniat, Siegfried Gruber (2019) “One size does not fit all”: Spatial nonstationarity in the determinants of elderly residential isolation in historical Europe. In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 25, No. 6. [DOI: 10.1002/psp.2242]
  • Siegfried Gruber (2019) Marital fertility in Albania during WWI. In: Elena Glavatskaya, Gunnar Thorvaldsen, Georg Fertig, Mikolaj Szoltysek (eds.), Nominative Data in Demographic Research in the East and the West. Ekaterinburg: Ural University Press, 80-96. [DOI: 10.15826/B978-5-7996-2656-3.05]
  • Siegfried Gruber (2019) Eheliche Fertilität in Albanien vor dem Zweiten Weltkrieg. In: Michaela Hohenwarter, Walter M. Iber, Thomas Krautzer (eds.), Mensch im Mittelpunkt. Bevölkerung – Ökonomie – Erinnerung. Festschrift für Peter Teibenbacher zum 65. Geburtstag (Wissenschaft kompakt: Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft, Politik. Schriften des Instituts für Wirtschafts-, Sozial- und Unternehmensgeschichte an der Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Vol. 2), Wien: Lit, 165-174.
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Radosław Poniat, Sebastian Klüsener, and Siegfried Gruber (2019) Family Organisation and Human Capital Inequalities in Historical Europe: Testing the Association Anew. In: Claude Diebolt, Auke Rijpma, Sarah Carmichael, Selin Dilli, Charlotte Störmer, (eds.), Cliometrics of the Family (Studies in Economic History), Cham: Springer International Publishing, 83-119. [DOI: https://10.1007/978-3-319-99480-2]


  • Mikołaj Szołtysek and Radosław Poniat (2018) The Power of the Family: New Data Reveal the Role of the Historical Family as the Instigator of Disparate and Lasting Developmental Trajectories. In: World Values Research, Vol. 10, Nr. 1, 1-39.
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek and Radosław Poniat (2018) Historical family systems and contemporary developmental outcomes: what is to be gained from the historical census microdata revolution? In: The History of the Family, Vol. 23, No. 3, 466-492. [DOI: 10.1080.1081602X.2018.1477686]
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek and Siegfried Gruber (2018) Mosaic: recovering surviving census records and reconstructing the familial history of Europe. In: Gunnar Thorvaldsen (ed.), Three Centuries of Northern Population Censuses, London, New York: Routledge, 38-60.
  • Siegfried Gruber and Rembrandt Scholz (2018) Fertility in Rostock and Rural Mecklenburg-Schwerin in the 19th Century. In: Historical Life Course Studies, 6, 11-39. [Download]
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Radosław Poniat, and Siegfried Gruber (2018) Age-heaping patterns in Mosaic data. In: Historical Methods, 51:1, 13-38. [Download]


  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Sebastian Klüsener, Radosław Poniat, and Siegfried Gruber (2017) The Patriarchy Index: A New Measure of Gender and Generational Inequalities in the Past. In: Patrick Heady and Mikołaj Szołtysek (eds.), Murdock and Goody revisited: (Pre)History and Evolution of Family Systems, Part II (Cross-Cultural Research 51:3), 228-262. [DOI:]



  • Rembrandt Scholz and Siegfried Gruber (2015) Die Fertilität in Rostock im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Pro Civitate Austriae, New Series 20, 47–65.


  • Mikołaj Szołtysek and Siegfried Gruber (2014) Living Arrangements of the Elderly in Two Eastern European Joint-Family Societies: Poland-Lithuania around 1800 and Albania in 1918. In: Hungarian Historical Review 3:1, 101-140. [Download]
  • Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2014) The Patriarchy Index: A Comparative Study of Power Relations across Historic Europe (MPIDR Working Paper WP 2014-007). Rostock.


  • Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2012) Stem Families, Joint Families, and the European Pattern: What kind of a Reconsideration Do We Need? In: Journal of Family History, 37:1, 105-125. [DOI:]
  • Siegfried Gruber (2012) Das MOSAIC-Projekt: Der Aufbau einer Datenbank zur Erforschung historischer europäischer Bevölkerungen. In: Computergenealogie, Magazin für Familienforschung, 27:1, 12-15.
  • Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2012) Quantifying Patriarchy: An Explorative Comparison of Two Joint Family Societies (MPIDR Working Paper WP 2012-017). Rostock.
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Siegfried Gruber, Barbara Zuber-Goldstein, and Rembrandt Scholz (2012) Living arrangements and household formation in an industrializing urban setting: Rostock 1867-1900. In: Annales de Démographie Historique 2011:2, 233-269.


  • Siegfried Gruber, Rembrandt D.Scholz, and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2011) Real and Synthetic Household Populations and Their Analysis: An Example of Early Historical Census Microdata (Rostock in 1819). In: Historical Methods: A Journal of Quantitative and Interdisciplinary History, 44:2, 107-113. [DOI:]
  • Siegfried Gruber and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2011) Stem families, joint families, and the European pattern: how much of a reconsideration do we need? Rostock, MPIDR Working Paper WP-2011-001. [Download]


  • Siegfried Gruber, Rembrandt D. Scholz, and Mikołaj Szołtysek (2010) Real and synthetic household populations and their analysis: an example of early historical micro-census data (Rostock, 1819). Rostock, MPIDR Working Paper WP-2010-017. [Download]
  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Siegfried Gruber, Barbara Zuber-Goldstein, and Rembrandt Scholz (2010) Living arrangements and household formation in the crucible of social change: Rostock 1867-1900. Rostock, MPIDR Working Paper WP-2010-036. [Download]


  • Mikołaj Szołtysek, Siegfried Gruber, Rembrandt Scholz, and Barbara Zuber-Goldstein (2009) Social change and family change in a Central European urban context: Rostock 1819-1867. Rostock, MPIDR Working Paper WP-2009-039. [Download]